رشته زبان انگلیسی کاربرد راهبردهای انگیزشی در آموزش زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان …

2.3.1.1. Gardner’s Social-Psychological Theory  14

2.3.1.2. Keller’s (1983) Motivational-Design Model 20

2.3.2. The Cognitive-Situated Period (1990-2000) 21

2.3.2.1.Dörnyei’s (1994) Framework of L2 Motivation  22

2.3.2.2. Williams and Burden’s (1997) Model of L2 Motivation  25

2.3.2.3. Task Motivation  27

2.3.2.4. L2 Motivation Expectancy-Value Theories  28

2.3.2.4.1. The Concepts of Self-Confidence and Linguistic Self-Confidence  29

2.3.2.4.2. Language Anxiety  31

2.3.2.4.3. Attribution Theory of L2 Learning  32

2.3.2.5. Achievement Motivation Theory  33

2.3.2.6. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) 34

2.3.3. The Process-Oriented Period (2000 Onwards) 36

2.3.3.1.Dörnyei and Ottó’s (1998) Process Model of L2 Motivation  36

2.4. Significance of Motivation/ L2 Motivation  39

2.5. Types of Motivation and their Role in SL/FL Acquisition  40

2.5.1. Integrative Motivation  40

2.5.2. Instrumental Motivation  42

2.5.3. Intrinsic Motivation  43

2.5.3.1. The Intrinsic Needs of Students  44

2.5.3.1.1. The Need for Autonomy and Self-Determination  45

2.5.3.1.2. The Need for Competence  45

2.5.3.1.3. The Need for Belonging and Relatedness  46

2.5.3.1.4. The Need for Self-Esteem    46

2.5.3.1.5. The Need for Involvement and Enjoyment 46

2.5.3.2. Achieving Intrinsic Motivation in L2 Learning  47

2.5.3.3. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in L2 Learning  47

2.5.4. Extrinsic Motivation  48

2.6. The L2 Motivational Self System   51

2.7. Motivational Strategies  53

2.7.1. Creating Basic Motivational Conditions  59

2.7.1.1. Demonstrating Proper Teacher Behaviour 59

2.7.1.1.1. Teacher’s Enthusiasm    59

2.7.1.1.2. Teacher’s Commitment 62

2.7.1.1.3. Teacher’s Care and Acceptance  63

2.7.1.1.4. Teacher’s Immediacy  65

2.7.1.2. Creating a Pleasant Classroom Atmosphere  66

2.7.1.3. Promoting Group Cohesiveness and Setting Group Norms  67

2.7.2.Generating Initial Motivation  70

2.7.2.1. Familiarising Learners with L2 Culture and L2 Related Values  70

2.7.2.2. Increasing Learners’ Expectancy of Success  71

2.7.2.3. Promoting Learners’ Positive Goals (Goal-Orientedness) and Realistic Beliefs  74

2.7.2.4. Relating Language Learning to Learners’ Needs and Goals  77

2.7.3. Maintaining and Protecting Motivation  78

2.7.3.1. Making Learning Stimulating and Enjoyable  78

2.7.3.2. Diminishing Learners’ Anxiety and Building up Their Self-Confidence  79

2.7.3.3. Promoting Learners’ Autonomy  82

2.7.4. Encouraging Positive Self-Evaluation  83

2.7.4.1. Promoting Learners’ Motivational Attributions  83

2.7.4.2. Providing Learners with Motivational Feedback  85

2.7.4.3. Increasing Learners’ Satisfaction  86

2.8. Current Status of English in Iran  90

CHAPTER THREE- METHOD   92

3.1. Overview   93

3.2. Participants  93

3.3. Instruments  94

یک مطلب دیگر :

3.4. Design  95

3.5.Procedure  95

3.5.1.Piloting  95

3.5.2.Data collection  96

3.6. Data Analysis  97

CHAPTER FOUR- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION   101

4.1. Overview   102

4.2. Research Question 1  102

4.2.1. Results  102

4.2.2. Discussions  109

4.3. Research Question 2  110

4.3.1. Results  110

4.3.2. Discussions  111

4.4. Research Question 3  112

4.4.1. Results  112

4.4.2. Discussions  114

4.5. Research Question 4  115

4.5.1. Results  115

4.5.2. Discussions  117

CHAPTER FIVE-CONCLUSION, PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH   118

5.1. Overview   119

5.2. Conclusion  119

5.3.Pedagogical Implications  121

5.4.Suggestions for Further research  126

References 137

 

 

 

 

List of Appendixes

Appendix 1: English version of Frequency Questionnaires  127

Appendix 2: English version of Importance Questionnaires  130

Appendix 3: Farsi version of Frequency Questionnaires  133

Appendix 4: Farsi version of Importance Questionnaires  135

 

 

 

 

List of Tables

Table 3.1. Gender of Participants  93

Table 3.2. EFL Teaching Experience of Participants  93

Table 3.3. Importance and Frequency Survey Results: Descriptive Statistics and Rankings of Ten Macro-strategies and Related Strategies  99

Table 4.1. Importance Questionnaires Results:  Descriptive Statistics and Rankings of Ten Macro-strategies and Related Strategies  103

Table 4.2. Comparison of the Final Rank Order of the Macro-strategies/scales Obtained in This Study and in Hungary (1998), Taiwan (2007) 110

Table 4.3.  Frequency Questionnaires Results:  Descriptive Statistics and Rankings of Ten Macro-strategies and Related Strategies  112

Table 4.4. Pearson Correlation Results between Overall Means of Motivational   Strategies of the Importance and Frequency Questionnaires  115

Table 4.5.  Pearson Correlation Results between Macro and Micro-strategies of the Importance and Frequency Questionnaires  116

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of Figures

Figure 2.1. Gardner’s (1985) Socio-Educational Model of Second Language Acquisition (Gardner, 1985, p.199) 15

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