رشته زبان انگلیسی A Study on the Effectiveness of Task types (noticing-reformulation) on Iranian Low …

1.6. Definitions of Key Terms………………………………………………….….….8

1.6.1.Collocation………………………………………………………………………8

1.6.2. Noticing………………………………………………………….…….…….…8

1.6.3. Reformulation …………………………………………………..………….…..8

1.6.4. Task ……………………………………………………………………..…..….9

1.6.5. Intake ………………………………………………………………..…….……9

1.6.6. Noticing the Gap………………………………………………………….…….9

1.6.7. Retention …………………………………………………………..…………..10

1.7. Summary………………………………………………………….………..….…1

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIW

2.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………….…..….11

2.1. Feedback Research in SLA……………………………………………………….11

2.1.1. The role of feedback in SLA……………………………………………………11

2.2. Psycholinguistic Processes in Second Language Acquisition …………………..21

2.2.1. Noticing and learning……………………………………………………..……21

2.2.2. The Noticing Hypothesis and SLA……………………………………………..27

2.2.3. Noticing, Intake and Subliminal Perception……………………………..…….35

2.2.4. Individual Differences in Noticing and Awareness ……………………….…..36

2.2.5. A Critical Review of Noticing Hypothesis in SLA………………………..…..37

2.3. The Theories of Vocabulary Acquisition……………………….………………..42

2.3.1. Collocation……………………………………………………………….…….42

2.3.2. Research on collocations………………………………………………..……..44

2.4. Noticing, Awareness and Attention in Learning Collocations………………….47

2.5. Problems in Collocation Production………………………………….……..…..49

2.6. Vocabulary Retention……………………………………………………………50

2.7. Summary……………………………………………………………………..….51

CHAPTER3: METHODOLOGY

3.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………….….….52

3.1. The Design of the Study………………………………………………………….52

3.2. Participants……………………………………………………………..……..…53

3.3. Materials ……………………………………………………………………..…..53

3.3.1. Concordance Software for Text Analysis………………………………..……54

3.3.2. Testing Instruments…………………………………………………………….54

3.3.2.1. The Self-report and Collocation Pre-test…………………………….………54

3.3.2.2. Immediate Collocation Retention Post-test……………………….…….…..54

3.3.2.3. Delayed Collocation Retention Post-test ………………………………..….55

3.3.3. Questionnaires …………………………………………………………….…..55

3.4. Procedure…………………………………………………………………….…..57

3.4.1. Week 1: Self-report Collocation Pretest/ Comparison Session………………..58

3.4.2. Week 3: Immediate Collocation Retention Post-test……………………….….59

3.4.4. Delayed Collocation Retention Post-test………………………………………59

3.5. Methods of Analyzing Data……………………………………………………..60

3.6. Scoring……………………………………….………………………………..…61

3.7. Summary…………………………………………………………………..……..61

یک مطلب دیگر :

CHAPTER4: RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS

4.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………62

4.1. Data Analysis and Findings ………………………………………………….…62

4.1.1. The descriptive Analysis of the Data……………………………………..……62

4.1.2. Inferential Analysis of the Data……………………………………………..…66

4.2. Results of the Hypothesis Testing…………………………………………..……68

4.3. Summary……………………………………………………………………….…68

CHAPTER5: DISCUSSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

5.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………..…..…69

5.1. General Discussion…………………………………………………………..……69

5.1.1. Discussion of the Findings Gained by the Questionnaire………………..……70

5.2. Implications of the Study…………………………………………………………71

5.2.1. Theoretical Implications……………………………….……………….………71

5.2.2. Pedagogical Implications………………………..…………………………..…71

5.3. Limitations of the Study………………………………………….…………….…72 5.4. Suggestions for Further Research………………………………………..………73

5.5. Summary …………………………………………………………………….……73

 

REFRENCES…………………………………………………….……..……………74

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A: Oxford Placement Test (OPT)…………………………………………90

Appendix B: Self-report Collocation Pretest …………………….……………….….96

Appendix C: Pretest Administered for Participants of Both Groups (Exactly the same test was given for immediate and delayed post-tests)………………………………..96

Appendix D: Post-test Administered for Participants of Both Groups ………..…..…97

Appendix E: Questionnaire………………………………………………..……….…98

List of Tables

Title                                                                                                                                   Page

Table 2.1. Comparison of reformulation and direct correction …………………….. 15

Table 3.1. Data collection procedure of the study ……………………………………58

Table 4.1. Group Statistics for the Delayed Post-test…………………………………63

Table 4.2. Group Statistics for the Immediate Post-test………………………………63

Table 4.3. Correlations Between the  Pretest and Delayed Post-test of Experimental Group…64

Table 4.4. Correlations Between the Pre and Delayed Post-test of Control Group….64

Table 4.5. Correlations Between Pre and Immediate Post-test of Experimental Group and Control Group…………………………………………………………………….65

Table 4.6. Correlations Between  Pre and Immediate Post-test of Control Group .…65

Table 4.7.Independent-samples t-test for Immediate Post-test…………………….…66

Table 4.8. Independent-samples t-test for Delayed Post-test…………………………67

 

 

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