رشته زبان انگلیسی Submitted to the Department of Postgraduate Studies as a Partial Fulfilment …

1.3.2           Purpose of the Study. 13

1.4         Literature Review.. 14

1.5         Materials and Methodology. 16

1.5.1           Limitation and Delimitation. 19

1.6         Thesis Outline. 20

1.7         Definition of Key Terms. 21

Chapter 2: Transition of Female Characters. 24

2.1         Current of French Thought. 25

2.1.1           French Feminism.. 26

2.1.2           Psychology and French philosophers. 31

2.1.3           Interactions between French thought and German thought 33

2.1.4           The relation of Feminism and Marxism.. 37

2.1.5           Lacan’s and Foucault’s Structuralism.. 38

2.1.6           The role of Simone de Beauvoir in French Feminism.. 42

2.1.7           Manifestation of Postmodernism and Post-structuralism.. 44

2.2         Luce Irigaray. 45

2.2.1           Irigaray’s concepts about the “female character”. 47

2.2.1.1       “The Other Woman”. 48

2.2.1.2       “Sexual Difference”. 52

2.2.1.3       Psychological repressions of women identity in West culture. 55

2.2.1.3.1     Repression and Schizophrenia. 55

2.2.1.3.2     Deconstruction of Patriarchal philosophy. 57

2.2.1.3.3     Sexual organs. 58

2.3         Helene Cixous. 59

2.3.1           Cixous’s philosophy and concepts about the female character. 60

2.3.1.1       Poetic writings about woman’s character. 60

2.3.1.2       Re- Born Woman. 65

2.3.1.3       Feminine Writing. 66

2.4         American and French Feminist literary criticism and art criticism.. 67

2.4.1           First waves of feminism.. 69

2.4.2           Second waves of feminism and Cixous’s and Irigaray’s concepts. 70

2.5         Proposing the theory of transformation of woman’s personality from Irigaray’s and Cixous’s viewpoints  72

 

Chapter 3: Female Characters of the Buried Child. 77

3.1         “Buried Child”. 78

3.2         Discourse of Characters and Post-Modern Attitude of Shepard. 79

3.3         Construction of “Buried Child”. 81

3.4         Psychoanalysis of women characters. 81

3.4.1           The character of “Catholic Bride” or the notion of multi-phallus in Irigaray’s and Cixous’s concepts. 83

3.4.2           “Halie”: the hysteric and repressed character. 85

یک مطلب دیگر :

3.4.3           Orgasmic pleasure and the character of Shelly. 88

3.4.4           Rape or alienation to femininity. 89

3.4.5           “Woman’s body” speaks. 91

Chapter 4: Female Characters of A Lie of the Mind & States of Shock. 92

4.1         “A Lie of the Mind”. 93

4.2         Love Crisis and A Lie of the Mind in Shepard’s Viewpoint. 97

4.3         The personality of “beaten Beth”. 104

4.3.1          Beth’s anxiety-Freud’s and Irigaray’s “lack of orgasm”. 106

4.4         Irigaray’s dialectics in women characters. 109

4.4.1           The relation of mother-daughter (Meg and Beth) 110

4.5         Cixous’s literature therapy and dialogues of woman personality. 111

4.6         “Transition of Personality” in female characters of A Lie of the Mind. 112

4.6.1           “Sally”: Conservative and unrepressed personality. 112

4.6.2           Meg and Lorraine: Non-Reborn Mothers. 113

4.7         “States of Shock”. 115

4.7.1           “White Woman, lack of male’s sex organ”. 117

4.7.2           “War, the absence woman identity”. 119

Chapter 5: Conclusion. 121

5.1         Summing up. 122

5.2         Findings. 126

5.2.1           Research Questions. 127

5.3         Works Cited. 131

 

 

 

Chapter One: 

Chapter 1: Introduction

 

1.1       General Background

Sam Shepard (5 November 1943- ) is “the greatest American playwright of his generation” (New York Magazine). In his high school years he began acting and writing poetry. In 1963, he moved to New York City where he met Charlie Mingus who introduced him to a jazz group. In these years he became familiar with Cinema too, he was especially interested in Western movies, which had a great impact on his personality.

His father’s personality and his life that is full of immigrations are the factors, which influenced his works. He loved his father so much and had a very friendly relationship with him and maybe the reason for such a relationship is the several travels, which he had with his father.

In the sixties, American art was undergoing some basic changes, which were related to autonomy of art and literature from their old traditions; Shepard was also under the influences of these changes. In this period Broadway theatre was put aside and a new theatre was created with the aim of reconstructing society.

It was in 1960 that he began his work as a postmodernist in American theatres. Many critics believe that Sam Shepard is the most enjoyable and excitable contemporary playwright in America, but little can be said about what exactly makes his plays interesting and exciting.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

ایمیل شما نمایش داده نخواهد شد


*